Marine capture fisheries are among the maritime uses that are expected to expand and intensify in the marine Arctic. Fishing could intensify in existing fishing areas and expand into areas where marine capture fisheries have never taken place. This chapter assesses the adequacy of the current international legal and policy framework for Arctic fisheries conservation and management in light of the current and expected impacts of global climate change on the marine Arctic. It provides an overview of the international legal and policy framework as well as national regulation and policy, identifies the main gaps therein, and suggests options for addressing them. These options include increased efforts in the sphere of research and data gathering, national regulation aimed at avoiding unregulated fishing, fisheries arrangements between Arctic Ocean coastal states, and a new regional fisheries management organization (RFMO) or Arrangement for part of the (Central) Arctic Ocean. Separate attention is devoted to the potential for cooperation between the European Union and the United States in this regard.